Using APACHE ANT to build APEX projects


9 min read

At Oracle Open World 2012, Scott Spendolini and I did a presentation entitled “Developing Commercial APEX Applications”. One of the topics that seemed to get a lot of attention and a number of questions was automating our build process using ANT. Several people requested a copy of the ANT script, so instead of sending it out individually, I’ve decided to include it here and walk though it.

First of all I must confess that I am, by no stretch of the imagination, an expert in building ANT scripts, so there are likely better ways to do some of the things that I’ve done. If you find that to be the case and you care to share your knowledge and experience, I invite you to share that knowledge in the comments section.

Second, and this may go without saying, but you’ll need to have the ANT executables installed on the server you’re going to use to build your projects.

Let's go through the build.xml file piece by piece.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<project name=“SERT BUILD" basedir=".">

The above preamble basically sets the XML version you’re adhering to and gives the whole project a name and sets the base directory for any work that is to be done.

<!--The following TASKDEF is needed to include the ANT-CONTRIB libraries -->
<taskdef resource="net/sf/antcontrib/antlib.xml"/>

The ANT-CONTRIB library is an extension to the basic ANT commands. It gives you the ability to do things like FOR and FOREACH loops, IF statements, TRYCATCH and a few others. I use it to loop through lists of files and performa actions on them. Not absolutely necessary, depending on what you’re doing, but very useful.

You can find more info about the ANT-CONTRIB library and download it here.

<!-- Define a macro that will be used to wrap the PL/SQL files -->
<macrodef name="wrapfile">
 <attribute name="file" />
   <!-- The first step wraps the file with an output name of *.*.tmp -->
   <exec executable="wrap">
    <arg value="iname=@{file}" />
    <arg value="oname=@{file}.tmp" />
   <!-- The second step moves the *.*.tmp file back to the original file name-->
   <exec executable="mv">
    <arg value="@{file}.tmp" />
    <arg value="@{file}" />

Above is a macro definition that I wrote to wrap PL/SQL or SQL scripts. When you define a macro, you can then call that definition later in the script to perform repetitive actions. This is much like defining and calling a PL/SQL Function for repetitive tasks.

For this to work you actually have to have the Oracle directory where the WRAP command resides in the path of the user that will be running the build. As a word of warning, I found out that the version of WRAP that comes with the Oracle Client for some reason didn’t work. I had to have a full install of the database software (even if I didn’t have a database created) for the build to work properly. I didn’t spend a lot of time tracking this down, but I suspect that it had to do with some library or something that was missing or inaccessible do to some path being out of whack.

<!-- This target sets up the base properties-->
<!-- These items can be changed by using the -D option on the command line -->
<target name="properties">
 <property name="wd" value="./work" />
 <property name="sv_version" value="000000"/>
 <property name="sv_parse_as" value="SV_SERT_APEX"/>

This is the first of the “Targets” in the file. A Target is basically something that will (either conditionally or unconditionally) get executed as part of the build. The properties target defines the variables that are going to be used during the build process. In my case I have the following:

  • wd – The working directory where the build will take place.
  • sv_version – The version of the software we’re going to build. It defaults to 000000, and will most likely be passed in on the command line.
  • sv_parse_as – The parse as schema that will be used to replace placeholders in the scripts. Again, can be overridden on the command line.

You can replace any of these values on the command line by using the -D option. Well talk more about how to call it from the command line later.

<!-- This target deletes the working directory and then recreates it.-->
<target name="setup" depends="properties">
 <echo message="Deleting the old working directory..." />
 <delete dir="${wd}" />
 <echo message="Creating the new working directory ..." />
 <mkdir dir="${wd}" />

The setup target sets up the working directory by cleaning it up (deleting it) if it already exists then creating it so that we can actually do some work in it. You’ll notice in line 2 the target tag has a depends attribute that tells ant that the properties target should be executed before this target runs. The depends clause is a nice safety net to make sure that all dependancies have been met before executing the current target.

<!-- This target does the SVN Check out -->
<target name="co" description="Checks out the most recent source to the working directory" depends="setup">
 <echo message="Checking out the sumnevaSERT Repository to the local working directory" />
 <exec executable="svn" dir="${wd}">
  <arg line="co --username myUsername --password myPassword”/>

The co target is used to check all of the current source files out of the source code repository. In our case we’re using SVN so the command-line version of the SVN client needs to be installed on the build machine in order for this to work. You’ll see on line 4 we’re setting up the executable (svn) and telling and the working directory. The next line is providing the command line arguments to the svn command. Obviously the repository URL and the Username and Password are fictional. You’ll need to fill those in for yourself.

One thing to note. I started off using my personal credentials for the SVN repository in the script. But because the script ended up being on several machines, we decided to create a “build” user that had read only access to the repositories to use in the build scripts.

<!-- This target does the replacement of the @VERSION@ variable in all the files -->
<target name="replace_all" description="replaces all instances of @SV_VERSION@ with the current build version" depends="setup">
 <replace dir="${wd}" token="@SV_VERSION@" value="${sv_version}" summary="yes" />
 <replace dir="${wd}" token="@SV_PARSE_AS@" value="${sv_parse_as}" summary="yes" />
<!-- This target does the replacement of the @VERSION@ variable in all the files EXCEPT the APEX application-->
<!-- It’s used to create an install file that maintains the @SV_VERSION@ Tags in the app, so we can move development to a new server -->
<target name="replace_clone" description="replaces specific instances of @SV_VERSION@ with the current build version" depends="setup">
 <replace dir="${wd}" token="@SV_VERSION@" value="${sv_version}" excludes="${wd}/app/*" summary="yes" />

The previous two build targets( replace_all and replace_clone) walk through the code tree and do replaces in all the source files, searching for the token listed and replacing each occurrence with the value provided. The first target replaces all occurrences, wherever they’re found, of both the @SV_VERSION@ and @SV_PARSE_AS@ variables. this would be used in a production build. The second target is used to create a clone of the code that would be in the development environment just in case we had to move it to a new server, which we had to do a couple times do to moving platforms, DB versions and APEX versions.

<!-- This target wraps all of the appropriate PL/SQL FILES-->
<target name="wrap" description="Wraps the appropriate PL/SQL files" >
 <echo message="Wrapping all of the PKB files found in the working directory" />
 <for param="file">
  <fileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK" includes="**/*.pkb" />
   <wrapfile file="@{file}" />
 <echo message="Wrapping PL/PDF Certification Key" />
 <for param="file">
  <fileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK" includes="**/plpdf_cert_b.sql" />
   <wrapfile file="@{file}" />
 <echo message="Wrapping any SPECIFIC PKS files." />
 <for param="file">
  <fileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK" includes="**/sv_license_core.pks" />
   <wrapfile file="@{file}" />

The wrap target does what you’d expect. It uses the aforementioned wrapfile macro to apply the Oracle Wrap functionality to obfuscate all of the package bodies (*.pkb) in our code set. It also wraps a few sensative files that we want to keep private. You’ll notice the use of the for and sequential commands. These are available because of the ANT-CONTRIB library we included earlier.

<!-- This target ZIPS the files-->
<target name="zip" description="ZIPS the files for the user" >
 <echo message="ZIPPING the final release..." />
 <zip destfile="release_${sv_version}.zip">
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/app" prefix="sert/app" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/cfg" prefix="sert/cfg" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/ctx" prefix="sert/ctx" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/ins" prefix="sert/ins" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/license" prefix="sert/license" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/logger" prefix="sert/logger" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/pkg" prefix="sert/pkg" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/syn" prefix="sert/syn" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/tbl" prefix="sert/tbl" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/vw" prefix="sert/vw" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/doc" includes="*.pdf" prefix="sert/doc" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/plpdf" prefix="sert/plpdf" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK" includes="ins.sql" prefix="sert" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK" includes="ins_beta.sql" prefix="sert" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK" includes="ins_admin.sql" prefix="sert" />
  <zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK" includes="unins.sql" prefix="sert" />

Once everything is wrapped and ready to roll, we need to zip it up in a nice little package. Here we’re using the zip target to tall ant which files we want to include in the zip. Line 4 indicates the name of the zip file to be created. Lines 5 through 20 indicate which files to include in the zip file.

Examine the following example:

<zipfileset dir="${wd}/TRUNK/cfg" prefix="sert/cfg" />

The dir property tells where to look for the files and the prefix property says what the path should be within the zip file. So you effectively have full control of the directory structure that will be created when the file is unzipped.

In our case we didn’t want to include everything that was in our source tree as there are some things that are really there just for us. By using multiple zipfileset directives, we selectively choose which files to include.

<!-- This target deletes the working directory-->
<target name="teardown" depends="properties">
 <delete dir="${wd}" />

The teardown target simply deletes the working directory after we’re done with it. This is the last of the real grunt work.

Everything from here out is merely a set of “empty” targets that do no real work of their own. They simply reference the things that need to happen in their depends clause and echo out some information for the user.

<!-- This target BUILDS the full release set-->
<target name="release" description="Full Release Build" depends="properties,co,replace_all,wrap,zip,teardown">
<echo message="Full Build Complete..." />

The first empty target is the full production build and is called release. The depends clause references all the things that should be executed and in which order. In the case of the production build, we see that it will perform the following tasks:

  2. CO
  4. WRAP
  5. ZIP

Since the co target depends on the setup target, we don’t have to call it specifically in the list.

<!-- This target BUILDS the full release set without wrapping-->
<target name="nowrap" description="Full Release Build - No Wrapping of PL/SQL" depends="properties,co,replace_all,zip,teardown">
<echo message="Unwrapped Build Complete..." />

The second empty target (nowrap) creates a zip file that is basically the same as previous release target, but notice that it does not do the wrapping of the PL/SQL code. We use this target to create test build so we can debug any issues we may find while testing.

<!-- This target BUILDS the full release set-->
<target name="clone" description="Full Release Build - No Wrapping of PL/SQL" depends="properties,co,replace_clone,zip,teardown">
<echo message="CLONE Build Complete..." />

The last empty target (clone) creates the clone that I spoke of above. It only processes a small subsection of the replacement variables and leaves the remainder intact. Again, this is for cloning a development environment. You may not need this.

Once your script it’s done it’s as simple as executing a simple command line call.

ant <target> -D variable_name=value

For instance, to do a full release build based on the targets in my build.xml file:

ant release -D sv_version=020100

While we don’t have automated builds using something like Maven or Hudson, it would be entirely possible. I hope this has been of some help to those of you who were interested.

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